The German psychologist and essay writer Gottschaldt Kurt Bruno was a representative of Gestalt psychology and studied problems of general and genetic psychology. He is widely known for his unusual experiments to determine the ideal image of the self when subjects were asked to change their image in a photo. Gottschaldt also developed an original method of included figures, created to investigate visual and cognitive abilities.
With the help of this technique, it is possible to determine the cognitive style of information perception: field-dependent or semi-dependent. Field-dependence is understood as dependence on context, and pole-dependence on the contrary - is the ability of a person not to submit to the influence of the context. The essence of the method is that if the perception of any shape depends on experience (whether a person has met this figure before or sees it for the first time), then a complex figure, which includes a simple one that has been repeatedly perceived up to this point, will be defined as separately simple and plus additional parts. Gottschaldt's development is aimed at studying the perception of part and whole, namely the definition of geometric complexity and simple figures.
How is the test conducted?
Participants are presented with 30 shapes, of which they must select 5 reference shapes. Complex and simple figures are placed on the form, with a simple figure (triangle, rectangle) as its part. First, the person is shown the simple figure for 10 seconds (the big figure is preliminarily covered with a dense sheet). Then the complex figure is shown, with the simple figure also hidden under a sheet of paper. The person has to find the simple figure in the larger one, and the time, while the person is looking for the figure, is measured. When the reference figure is found, the time spent on the task is recorded.
How are the results calculated?
To determine the result the following indicators are needed: how much time all tests were completed, how many correct answers were given, the ratio of the number of correctly completed tasks to the time of completion of the test is calculated. The more correct answers received and the less time spent, the greater the likelihood of being sexually dependent. Typically, sexually dependent people spend less time on a test than do sexually dependent people, and give more correct answers.
Gender-independent people tend to be more imaginative, better learners, quicker to solve problems of quick thinking, easier to accept change, but they are less good with people and cannot solve conflicts quickly. Field-dependent people, on the contrary, can quickly establish contact with the interlocutor, avoid conflict situations, but they are passive in learning, prefer to learn from clearly structured material.